Psychometric examination of the Malay version of the Pain Catastrophising Scale in a Malaysian chronic pain sample


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Lee, J. K., Jamil Osman, Z. ., Ismail, S. I. F. ., & Tan, K.-A. (2023). Psychometric examination of the Malay version of the Pain Catastrophising Scale in a Malaysian chronic pain sample. Malaysian Journal of Anaesthesiology, 2(1), 69–81.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Ji Kwan Lee, Zubaidah Jamil Osman, Siti Irma Fadhilah Ismail, Kit-Aun Tan


chronic pain; Malaysia; Pain Catastrophising Scale; psychometric analysis


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS-M).

Methods: The original PCS was translated into Malay using the back-translation method and was administered to 132 outpatients with non-malignant chronic pain.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a 10-item single-factor model had a better fit profile compared to 8 competing models as documented in previous studies. In terms of internal consistency, Cronbach’s α value for the PCS-M was 0.93. In terms of predictive validity, the PCS-M explained 47%, 24%, and 22% of the variance in anxiety, depression, and kinesiophobia, respectively.

Conclusion: Best presented as a unidimensional construct, the 10-item PCS-M demonstrated excellent reliability estimate and initial evidence for predictive validity in a Malaysian chronic pain sample. The 10-item PCS-M is a reliable and valid tool to be used in chronic pain management in the Malaysian context.


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